Thursday, May 21, 2020
Page Robinson Reflection Ã¢â¬â Gilmore, Deloria, Collins, and McClintock Ruthie Gilmore Ã¢â¬â Golden Gulag GilmoreÃ¢â¬â¢s piece aims to disprove the myth that prisons are built by crime by focusing on the growth of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s state prison system since 1982 and the accompanying grassroots opposition. Prisons are thought to stop crime through retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and incapacitation. The dominant explanation for prison growth is that crime went up, so prisons were created, and crime went down. However, states with fewer prisons have noticed greater decreases in crime. Prisons do not lead to increased stability because of thinning financial and emotional resources, the breakdown of informal customary relationships, mental illnessÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A second historical tradition is whites refusing to give non-whites the rights they legally possess. Laws were passed that forced Indians to conform to white institutions, convincing Indians they were the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s stupidest people. The history of Indians was manipulated to fit the needs of the interme diaries. Deloria hypothesizes that Indians are probably invisible because of the tremendous amount of misinformation about them. Understanding Indians means understanding Indian affairs. However, there exist many myths about Indian affairs. To address Ã¢â¬Å"Indian problemsÃ¢â¬ task force reports are demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"The conclusion of every task force report is that Congress is not appropriating enough money to do an adequate job of helping IndiansÃ¢â¬ (Deloria 1969). Paternalism is a favorite subject of task forces. However, government paternalism is not a serious problem, while private sector paternalism is. The problem is that since no one asked the churches, white interest organizations, and universities to come, itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to ask them to leave. Over time tribes have discovered that they must band together to make themselves heard. Indians have two mainstream organizations; The National Congress of American Indians and The National Indian Youth Council. Tribes have a lso found that by handling problems amongst themselves they are more successful than when trying to adapt to the white value system. However,
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
There are a number of population groups vulnerable to loneliness. However, elderly people are often more so targeted by loneliness which is owed to Ã¢â¬Ëloss of friends and family, loss of mobility or loss of incomeÃ¢â¬â¢.(Saito) Because of this, there has been an increased public concern on the issue of loneliness in senior populations. The statistics on population aging in developed countries are well known. Those aged 60 and above currently account for approximately 20 percent of the population in developed countries and this proportion is expected to rise to 24 percent by 2030. In the next 20 years, the population of those aged over 80 will triple and those over 90 will double.(aging statistics) As the population of the elderly in theseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Not surprisingly, loneliness has been shown to have a significant negative impact on quality of life and health. Being lonely has a strong and lasting effect on blood pressure, with studies revealing that lonely i ndividuals have higher blood pressure than their less lonely peers. Luanaigh and Lawlor, members of the MercerÃ¢â¬â¢s Institute of Research in Aging located at St. James Hospital in Dublin, Ireland, have found this to be true in individuals regardless numerous factors, which include age, gender, race, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, health conditions and the effects of depressive symptoms.(Luanaigh and Lawlor) Loneliness may also affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mental state and mortality. In Pitkala et alÃ¢â¬â¢s research, done from Helsinki University Central Hospital at University of Helsinki, Finland, loneliness is associated with depression and higher rates of mortality(Pitkala). Amazingly, the inÃ¯ ¬âuence of social relationships on the risk of death is shown to be comparable with other well-established risk factors for mortality such as smoking and alcohol consumption. Additionally, this negative impact on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s health may lead them to require a
Competition in the Movie Rental Industry in 2008: Netflix and Blockbuster Battle for Market Leadership Although the corporate strategies implemented by Netflix and Blockbuster have allowed them to become leaders of competitive advantage in the movie rental industry, they sometimes encounter strategic issues that slow down their product and services process. My research of Netflix and Blockbuster will enable me to present a SWOT analysis and recommendations for each company. Netflix, founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings, has achieved its goal of becoming the largest online movie rental service in the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Competition in the Movie Rental Industry in 2008 or any similar topic only for you Order Now By the end of 2007, Netflix recorded revenues of $1. 2 billion. With a library of 100,000 movie titles and a subscriber base of over seven million, they had become the leaders of the movie rental industry (Gamble Thompson, 2011). NetflixÃ¢â¬â¢s business model of internet subscription enabled them to compete in the movie industry. Consumers love going to the movies, but with increasing theatre prices found it too expensive to attend public viewings. Netflix provided an inexpensive way to view movies which could be done from the comforts of home. According to the text, (Essentials of Strategic Management, 2010), Ã¢â¬Å"NetflixÃ¢â¬â¢s success is due to its six-pronged strategy of providing comprehensive selection of DVDs, easy way to choose movies, fast delivery, no return due dates, and convenient drop in mail movie returnsÃ¢â¬ (Gamble Thompson, 2010). In an online survey by Nielsen Online, Netflix was rated number one for three years and for nine consecutive periods by Forsee/FGI Research (Netflix, 2009). Netflix Strategic Issues Blockbuster, NetflixÃ¢â¬â¢s fiercest competitor, experience many rental issues until 2007 when they regained market shares forcing Netflix to reduce subscription prices. Not only did Blockbuster gain presence, other competitors like Redbox also gained presence in the market due to new technologies (VOD DVR) that are influencing the business environment. The business model used by Netflix caused a stir in the market industry. However, the damage control strategies of competitors and competitor recapture of market shares is threatening NetflixÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage. Netflix has to change with the times. Competitive Forces Netflix and Blockbuster are affected by the five forces of competition which are potential new entrants, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of substitutes, and rivalry among existing competitors (Gamble Thompson, 2010). The companies must understand how these forces work and affect their operation. Threats of New Entrants -In the home video/game industries, new entrants must own large amounts of movies/games for rental or sale to fulfill customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands. Meanwhile they have to build up various distribution channels for products to reach customers in a very quick way (Xie Lin, 2008). Bargaining Power of Suppliers -The inputs of suppliers in the home video/game industries are very important and since there are only a few qualified suppliers in the industry, their bargaining power is high. Netflix acquires its movies from movie studios and distributors, buying DVDs on a fee-per-DVD basis, paying license content fees, and signing revenue sharing agreements. Blockbuster also has revenue sharing agreements with its suppliers. To some extent, these agreements reduce the bargaining power of suppliers. In terms of the computer system, Blockbuster is using ProviaÃ¢â¬â¢s Viaware warehouse management system (packaging, sorting, and distributing rental products) in its supply chain management to keep costs down (Xie Lin, 2008). Threats of substitutes -Substitutes include movie theaters, satellite TV, and cable TV. Customers can go to movie theaters and enjoy the vivid atmosphere. Alternatively, they can order Ã¢â¬Å"pay-per-viewÃ¢â¬ or subscribe Ã¢â¬Å"on-demandÃ¢â¬ from satellite TV and/or cable TV providers to watch movies at home. Users can watch anytime they want. Satellite and cable TV offer sufficient selections of new releases and are is easy to watch with just click on remote. Netflix and Blockbuster compete for customers by offering various kinds of movies and internet access (Xie Lin, 2008). Rivalry among industry competitors Ã¢â¬â Netflix and Blockbuster are in a highly competitive industry. Competitors include merchant retailers, such as Wal-Mart, Best Buy, and Target; video and game store like Hollywood Video, Movie Gallery, and Game Stop; supermarkets, convenient stores such as Publix, and McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. The significant rival is Hollywood Video which offers movie and game rentals (Xie Lin, 2008). Bargaining power of buyers -Buyers are not in concentrated groups and do not buy in large amounts. However, within the entertainment industry, customers have a lot of alternatives and have no switching cost. However the introduction of DVDs, influenced customers to purchase DVDs since the cost is almost the same cost of rentals. This makes buyer power moderate (Xie Lin, 2008). The five forces of competition of the movie rental industry presents little force against a competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s market position based on buyer power, supplier power, and new entrant threats. However, threat of substitutes and rivalry among competitors can affect the amount of profits a company will gain and retain. Netflix SWOT Analysis The presence of Netflix and Blockbuster in the movie rental industry has assisted me in developing this analysis of each corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats as followed: NetflixÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths are: Good reputation, unlimited movie rental subscription, no due dates or late fees, easy website access, and large movie selection. NetflixÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknesses are: Limited to internet rental access, and long waiting period for new releases. NetflixÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunities are: To provide Video on Demand media access, music and movie download, and acquire partnership with gaming industry. NetflixÃ¢â¬â¢s threats are: Low DVD rentals, government regulation of rental distribution, high level of competition, and new movie media technology. Blockbuster SWOT Analysis BlockbusterÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths are: national and international recognition provides movie and game rentals, various vices for rental access (i. e. stores, kiosk, and internet), offers snacks and beverages for purchase in stores, and accommodates all customer types. BlockbusterÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknesses are: Poor distribution process, increased operating expense, decreased reputation, limited new released video games, unable to compete with game distributors (i. e. GameStop), and constant rental policy changes. Blockbuster opportunities are: Unlimited access to downloadable media libraries, increased production of brand movie rentals, and partnership with gaming system industry. BlockbusterÃ¢â¬â¢s threats are: New video formats, decreased DVD movie rentals, increased competition, and government regulation of movie rentals. The SWOT analysis shows that Netflix and Blockbuster have strong strengths and opportunities, however in order to Netflix to maintain its competitive advantage there needs to be an upgrade in innovation and technology that will strengthen their reputation and reliability. BlockbusterÃ¢â¬â¢s loss in reputation will continually plague their ability to remain competitive and maintain the customer base that they have. Blockbuster will continually face challenges until they upgrade their innovation and technology to level where they will enter into recovery mode. As I studied the financial information presented in the text, it appears that Netflix has been able to offer customers the benefit of low rental fees because they have been able to maintain a low level of expenses. The benefits offered to customers have increased the amounts of net income and movie rentals. Netflix prides itself on promoting customer satisfaction and meeting demands of its internet base. According to the numbers presented by Internet World Stats, the percentage of internet penetration by the North American population was 74. 2 percent in 2009, which was a 134 percent increase from 2000. At this rate, Netflix could secure an internet rental customer base of 74. 2 percent which would strengthen its success (Miniwatts Marketing Group, 2009) BlockbusterÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest challenge is development of a viable strategic approach to price setting. When Netflix entered the game, Blockbuster began to lose profits. In an attempt to recoup some of its losses, Blockbuster presented campaign where the rental policy constantly changed leaving customers confused and unsure of the rental process. Although Blockbuster has a large selection of movie titles and global presence, its reputation of dissatisfied customers and inefficient distribution has caused its overall cost to rise significantly. BlockbusterÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage is that it offers various channels by which customers can access entertainment media. According to Blockbuster, Ã¢â¬Å"The same customer can choose different ways to access media entertainment on different nightsÃ¢â¬ (Blockbuster, 2010). Recommendations In order for Netflix to maintain its competitive advantage there must be an adjustment of their strategy. Customer satisfaction should be a key factor of its strategy. I recommend that they base their marketing promotions on increasing customer awareness of the variety of accessible content offered. They should also implement the availability of music content and digital media to their library. The development of an award program for customers with lengthy memberships would influence word of mouth recommendations. Most of all, Netflix must continue to offer their customers the benefit of more titles at modest cost subscription memberships. In order for Blockbuster to regain its competitive advantage and reputation there must be the development of a strategy that will increase their profit. They have to become more innovation in internet and in-store rental process. There should be monitoring devices placed on scanner registers and mailed movie rentals to better track returns in order to keep their cost at a minimum. Staff should be trained and monitored on a constant basis to ensure that customer satisfaction is the key priority. Blockbuster must implement policies that will be enforced and understood by customers. They should also team up with gaming system producers to ensure that they will be supplied with current games and possibly offer gaming system rentals. Most of all they should find their own niche market which will provide them with a specialized competitive advantage. The information researched on Netflix and Blockbuster has enabled me to conclude that competition in the movie rental industry is highly competitive. There are new companies entering the market that have a competitive advantage whether it consist of internet rental, vending machine rental access, or in-store rental access. Netflix and Blockbuster have taken the lead in providing thousands of movie title to be viewed in the comfort of our own homes without the expense of movie theatres. Although both companies have a competitive advantage, they each have a following of dedicated customers who will stay with them because of familiarity. Through my research I have learned that consumers are the controllers in the movie rental industry. If consumers dislike the way they are serviced or the cost of movie rentals they will most certainly move on to a company which will cater to their movie wants and needs. However, the movie rental industry must stay up on new innovations and technologies in order to remain competitive, profitable, and maintain modest levels of overall costs. How to cite Competition in the Movie Rental Industry in 2008, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Marie de FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËLanvalÃ¢â¬â¢ (Abrams, 2006. p. 142-157) is a 12th century lais that tells the tale of a knight who is caught between two different worlds; that of his loverÃ¢â¬â¢s and his own. Forced to live between both worlds, Lanval finds himself stuck between a world of solitude and a world of love. Through the trials and tribulations that result from the circumstances that he finds himself in, Lanval is confronted with the challenge of keeping his love with the Queen of Avalon a secret. This essay aims to show that in order to become a better knight Lanval must confront the challenge that results from him being unable to keep his love with Queen Avalon sacred. LanvalÃ¢â¬â¢s oath to hide his relationship with his lover is his biggest challenge and ultimately proves to be the laisÃ¢â¬â¢s central dilemma and unravels a series of consequences which almost bring about his undoing. We will write a custom essay sample on Marie de Frances Lanval or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is by facing up to the consequences of his actions that he is able to grow personally through learnt humility, develop an understanding of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s most paramount and mature and become a better knight. In order to develop an understanding of why Lanval failed the challenge of keeping his love secret, we must first develop an understanding of LanvalÃ¢â¬â¢s physical and emotional isolation. In the beginning of the lais, Lanval is absent of two things women and land. He is described as a noble foreigner who resides far from his homeland, living by what appears to be the only profession he knows, being a knight (Ireland, 1977. p. 132). King Arthur rewards the service of all his other knights but inexplicably passes over giving Lanval neither women, land nor money. King ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour is undoubtedly unfair inexplicable, given Lanval moved from a foreign land and has no ancestral rights to any land in the area so is left with nothing. According to Ireland in the Ã¢â¬ËNarrative Unity of the Lanval of Marie de FranceÃ¢â¬â¢ such omissions by royalty are not uncommon in medieval literature (Ireland, 1977. p. 133). Further to this, he is not held in high regard by King ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s other knights Ã¢â¬Å"Nor did his men like him at all. They envied his handsomeness, his courage, prowess and largesse. Ã¢â¬ (Abrams, 2006. . 143). Although loyal to King Arthur and his knights ,the lai reveals that Lanval is upset by the situation he finds himself in and generates a negative outlook, Ã¢â¬Å"Now Lanval is much preoccupied, gloomy seeing the darker side. when he comes from a foreign land and finds no help from any hand,Ã¢â¬ (Abrams, 2006. p. 143) which leads to him living a life of solitude and isolation. In contrast with the solitud e experienced in his own world of King ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s court, Lanval is provided unconditional love and wealth by the Queen of Avalon. However, to further isolate Lanval from King ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s court, Lanval is forced to separate both worlds because the Queen of Avalon, demands that their love remain sacred or he will lose her forever Ã¢â¬Å"I warn you and pray you and command: you must not tell anyone about the love that you have won. The consequence I shall declare: should people learn of this affair, you shall never see me again,Ã¢â¬ (Abrams, 2006. p. 145). Throughout the lais, Lanval faces the challenge of remaining loyal to his lover by keeping their love secret. In the end, it is LavalÃ¢â¬â¢s ego which stops him from remaining loyal to his lover and revealing their sacred love when King ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s Queen accuses him of homosexuality. Finding it necessary to justify himself to the Queen, Lanval betrays the promise he made to his lover and puts his own pride ahead of his loyalty to his lover. This shows LanvalÃ¢â¬â¢s immaturity and how he puts his own selfish pride ahead of any loyalty to the Queen of Avalon or King Arthur. However, it is at this point of the lais that the reader begins to see a personal change in Lanval. Almost immediately he begins to grow personally through the experience by quickly developing self-awareness and regretting his biggest error and betrayal. This is noted by PatrickÃ¢â¬â¢s in Ã¢â¬ËThe Narrative Unity of LanvalÃ¢â¬â¢ who suggests that Lanval Ã¢â¬Å"reaches a kind of extra mortal awareness that his life and love lie in the other world,Ã¢â¬Å" (Ireland, 1977. p. 140). After LanvalÃ¢â¬â¢s secret love is revealed, it appears that the relationship between him and his lover has ended as Ã¢â¬Å"being well aware that he has spoiled the whole affair,Ã¢â¬ (Abrams, 2006. p. 149). During his trial, Lanval defends himself but it is his betrayal of his lover that is the biggest concern for the knight than the possibility of being sentenced to death or banished by a jury of his peers. This leads to LanvalÃ¢â¬â¢s submission to any decision the court determines; life or death matters little to Lanval if he cannot be reconciled with his lover. It is clear for the reader at this point that a major personal change has occurred in Lanval, the immature knight that the reader gets to know at the start of the poem is already evolving into a selfless knight. It is during his trial that Lanval is left Ã¢â¬Å"complaining and sighingÃ¢â¬ rying a hundred times for her (his lover) to have mercy (Abrams, 2006. p. 149). It is at this point that the reader can see that Lanval is developing humility brought about by his loss and that his love becomes the most important thing in LanvalÃ¢â¬â¢s world. It is by facing the consequences of his actions that we see Lanval continue t o grow personally and ultimately become a better person and knight. In conclusion it is evident; that it is only by failing the challenge of honouring the promise to his lover to keep their unspoken love secret that Lanval is able to eventually come to an understanding of what is most important to him. Throughout the lais the reader is able to follow LanvalÃ¢â¬â¢s development and see that it is not until Lanval develops a deep understanding of his mistake and what his pride may have cost him that he is able to develop humility and to become a better person and knight.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Lessons in investing business by Mark Skousen Investing In One Lesson by Mark Skousen reveals the main principle of the investing business and can be called a guideline for those who want to succeed in this business.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Lessons in investing business by Mark Skousen specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main values of this book include SkousenÃ¢â¬â¢s great experience in this area and the simplicity of his explanations and examples. To my mind the book under consideration can be very helpful for starters and professionals as well. Even Skousen points out the exclusive importance of education and stresses that it is very important to Ã¢â¬Å"take time to educate yourself, to research ways to become more proficient in your own job or businessÃ¢â¬ (Skousen 15). Investing In One Lesson lists the main questions that occur to the majority of investors and gives simple and competent answers. Admittedly, investing business is one of the m ost complicated and unpredictable; that is why it is very important to know the main laws of this world. The book under consideration contains all the necessary information to understand what this business is and the ways how to escape losses and obtain profits. To my mind this book is very helpful and readable due to its proximity to life, since Skousen donÃ¢â¬â¢t give the theory, he provides very illustrative examples considering famous companies, such as Yahoo, or Miramar Mining, etc. The book depicts different situations companies face, the ways how companies act, and the results of their actions. IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to point out that Skousen repeats one statement from the very beginning through the whole book: Ã¢â¬Å"The business of investing is not the same as investing in a businessÃ¢â¬ (Skousen 3). After reading this book I understood that this statement is really true and this knowledge helped me understand better investing business. Now I understand that main rules that are good for leading business cannot be applied to investing business. Another point that pleasantly surprised me in this book that Skousen admits that losses in this business are quite often and he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t say he never lost money while operating in this business. To my mind, it is very important to remember about the possible losses, and I think that the value of investing business consultantsÃ¢â¬â¢ portfolio cannot be their doubtful Ã¢â¬Å"invincibilityÃ¢â¬ , but ratio of the amount of gained money to the amount of lost money.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, Investing In One Lesson describes the possible ways how to cope with inevitable difficulties in investing business. After reading this book I learned that one of the main points in making success in investing business is the necessity to limit oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"investment choices to those that suitÃ¢â¬ oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"natural dispositionÃ¢â¬ (Skousen 143). Skousen proves that it is necessary to focus on limited number of affairs you know and can deal with. To my mind this is the clue to making success, since one only wastes his/her time and money on knowing better new markets or new business, instead of making progress in the familiar sphere. I would also like to point out that Skousen is a supporter of economic theory of Austrian school, suggesting that government intervention in business should be minimized, and economic principles should be restricted by human motivations. These views can be also traced in the book under consideration. IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to point out that Investing In One Lesson broaden my knowledge in investing business and made me understand that it is possible to gain success in this sphere, giving some useful hints. Skousen, M. Investing In One Lesson. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2007.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Fit and Fitted Fit and Fitted Fit and Fitted By Maeve Maddox A Lenscrafter television advertisement showing a man being fitted for glasses caught my attention with its unidiomatic use of the verb fit. At the beginning of the ad, the man is in a traditional examining room, looking anxiously through multiple lenses. At the end of the ad, he is seated comfortably in front of a device that ascertains his prescription by digital means. A voice-over asks, Why have your glasses fit manually? My internal usage detector immediately corrected the question to Why have your glasses fitted manually? American speakers do sometimes use fit instead of fitted as a past form, as in this example: In his case, the punishment fit the crime. In the context of having glasses made to measure, however, fitted is the preferred past form in standard US English. The following examples from US sources indicate that Lenscrafters use of fit as a past form does not agree with common usage in the context of fitting eyeglasses: Safety glasses which are professionally measured and fitted to the individual are recommended for permanent employees whose job duties require frequent eye protection.- University of North Carolina You can also send us new frames youÃ¢â¬â¢ve already bought and had fitted and we will fit new lenses into them.- Texas-based mail-order business. After this testing has been completed, your eye doctor will gather additional information so you can be fitted with contact lenses.- US vision information site. This is why it is important to have your eyeglasses fitted before you bring them home.- New Hampshire optometry office. Fitted is also the preferred form in the context of installing or equipping something: Since I last wrote about this issue in 2002, more rental cars have been fitted with such systems, which can instantly relay information on your cars speed, route and position to the rental company.- LA Times More than 200 paroled burglars in Connecticut will be fitted with global tracking devices as part of the states response to a home invasion in Cheshire last month that claimed the lives of a woman and her two daughters.- NY Times After selecting the plan, Hernandez learned it didnt cover the audiologist who had fitted her daughter, who is partially deaf, with a hearing aid.- Chicago Tribune An artist is planning to release about 2000 pigeonsÃ fittedÃ with LEDÃ lightsÃ over New Yorks East River.- UPI news site. Finally, here are some examples of things being fitted manually: Most polar exploration aircraft must beÃ fitted manuallyÃ with skis for operating on snow.- Popular Mechanics To change the tower lightsÃ¢â¬â¢ colors, plastic gels are fitted manually over metal halide lamps or floodlights and fluorescent tubes in various color combinations.- Article about the Empire State Building on a US trivia site The models generated for helix Ã ±A, helix Ã ±B and helix Ã ±C located in TraF/VirB10NTÃ were fitted manually in one monomer of the difference map. - US government science site. Both forms, fit and fitted, are used as adjectives, but with different meanings. Compare: This dress is fit for a princess. (suitable) He never buys fitted sheets. (designed to fit closely) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Good At, Good In, and Good WithHyper and Hypo7 Proofreading Steps
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Islamic architecture 2 - Essay Example The beginning of Islamic Architecture takes place with the construction of the Great Mosque at Cordoba in the Iberian Peninsula. Muslims as well as the Christians consider it a wonder of the medieval ages. The construction of great mosque of Cordoba initiated in between Ã¢â¬Å"784 and 786 at the site of a Christian Visigothic ChurchÃ¢â¬ 2. In specific, Abd ar-Rahman acquired the church, and subsequently, his grandchildren modified it over two centuries to transform it into a religious entity, starting in 784. The mosque itself was built in four phasesÃ and is observed as a trademark of sacred Islamic architecture. Ferdinand III king of Castile took over Cordoba in 12363 and sanctioned the Great Mosque as the cathedral of city, Mezquita, and used it with negligible changes for the next three centuries4. In 929, when Abd al-Rahman III5 confirmed himself caliph, and the Spanish Umayyads attained the peak of their supremacy. The caliph built the fortress capital of Madinah al-Zahra about thirteen kilometers Northwest of Cordoba, with its focus to impress the world and exhibit its massive military. He made it his empires managerial and legislative headquarters. The construction in Medina al-Zahra proceeded speedily, particularly since Abd al-Rahman III put in one third of the state revenues in its progression. Finally, he brought in the largest and most grand secular venture of his period, which stayed matchless irrespective of the numerous cities founded until its end. As the caliphate fell in the 11th century, the city then was sacked and smoldered. The new Minister of Caliph Hisham II, Vizir-ul-Mansur6 shifted his concentration towards the east of Cordoba and deserted the city during his reign. Later, the Berber troops destroyed this palace-city in 10107. The Great Mosque of Cordoba is most illustrious for its gigantic arches, with approximately eight hundred fifty six pillars of natural stones. These legendary